Using Unprivileged Users in Docker Containers

Sep 19, 2014. | By: Paul

Last month Jérôme Petazzoni gave a talk about the security of Docker containers. The maybe most important message of his talk was that one should avoid running applications as root in containers wherever possible. Otherwise, it might be possible or at least easier for an malicious application to free itself from the containers restrictions and mess with the host system. Unfortunately, up to now not many people seem to bother, and most images at the Dockerhub (at least the ones I looked at…) seem to be running as root anyway.

It is quite easy to create an unprivileged user in an docker file. Just create the user using the utils of the underlying distribution, e.g.

RUN useradd -ms /bin/bash testuser

on Debian/Ubuntu. Then you can switch to the users account with a

USER testuser

Every command afterwards will be executed as testuser. If you start an image interactively, you will be the testuser:

docker run -t -i nonroot_user_base

This is fine if you are shipping an application with docker, as I do with my simulation program scrm. It however also has a few drawbacks:

  • It is much more difficult for someone to modify the container, especially when running it interactively. One could allow password-less sudo for the user, but this would then again undermine security. It would be better using a password, but then this password would have to be somehow communicated to the user.
  • If you derive an image from an image with has switched to an unprivileged user, you first need to switch back to root before you can use commands that require root privilege. This seems to be pretty obvious, but one often does not known about the exact internal of the image he is building upon, and hence it might be quite confusing to have commands like apt-get update throwing an error.

Some tests I made about unprivileged users in docker are available at GitHub.

Android Bloatware compiler benchmark scrm ETL Spark


I'm a ML Engineer in Munich, Germany.

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